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Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs. The citational footnote style is an alternative to the traditional placement of citations, using footnotes only for the citational content that would otherwise appear in the body of an opinion if either the running text citation style (§ [b]) or the citations within parentheses style (§ [c]) were used.


Please reply back to this message and I will send you some of our animated video samples so you can see what I can do to help your business grow this year. Thanks for this wonderful article. These kinds of changes in focusing length are usually reflected within the viewfinder and on massive display screen right at the back of your camera. It containsconsists ofincludescarries nicepleasantgoodfastidious stuffinformationdatamaterial. Best Online Loans says: Getting A Loan says: Best Payday Loan says: Instant Online Loans says: Easy Payday Loan says: Online Payday Loans says: Pay Day Loans says: The use of small capitals in the text of opinions and footnotes has been eliminated The model citational footnote opinion has been updated Appendix 7.

Exceptions and Changes Deviations from the rules stated in this Manual are permitted where application of a rule would adversely affect the clarity or readability of an opinion. Use of the Internet version is strongly recommended not only for updates, but also to gain the advantages of word searching, hypertext linking and coordinating use of the Manual with the Official Case Name and Citation Locator.

In this format, citations in footnotes, if any, are styled as provided in section 1. Unless otherwise indicated, the examples in this Manual are shown as citations within parentheses. The facts in this decision are not unusual see George C. People v Moran , 2 AD3d [1st Dept ].

Place the parenthetical within the sentence as in first example above if it relates to the sentence alone. Place it outside the sentence as in second example above if it relates to more than one preceding sentence. If used, the citational footnote style should be used for all citations in the opinion. See Appendix 7 for a model opinion formatted in the citational footnote style. Apply the following rules based upon the location where citational content would be placed in the traditional format.

The footnote number should be placed at the point in the text where the citation would appear if the citation were placed in the text. The situation in Rogers v Rogers 1 mirrors the situation in this decision. Place the citation in the footnote and eliminate the parentheses enclosing the citation. The facts in this decision are not unusual.

The effect of the deregulation on the structure and organization of the natural gas industry is detailed in General Motors Corp. County Court denied defendant's motion; 16 the Appellate Division reversed, vacated the judgment, restored the indictment to the preplea stage and reinstated the prosecution's notice of intent to seek the death penalty.

A full citation may be repeated if a short form or id. A short-form reference should provide sufficient information to avoid confusion with distinct previous citations. The shortened form of the case name is usually the name of the first nongovernmental party for example, " Krom " for " People v Krom " and " Albouyeh " for " Albouyeh v County of Suffolk ".

Popular names for cases for example, "the Central Park Jogger case" may be used when desired. Do not place a comma between the signal and citation.

Consult standard citation authorities for information regarding the use of signals, their order when using two or more and the order of authorities after each signal. The following examples illustrate the use of introductory signals: A citation to an electronic source requires information identifying the particular material referenced, and is likely also to require information about the location where the source of that material may be accessed e.

Where the location or content of an electronic source is subject to change, a "last updated" or "last accessed" date should be included. If the format of an electronic source prevents precise citation to particular material referenced, add the necessary navigation instructions to the citation. Pinpoint citation is not possible if the electronic source is in a format e. HTML that does not contain fixed reference points, but may be included if the source is in a format e.

PDF that contains fixed pagination, paragraph numbering or location numbers. Electronic government sources designated "official" or authenticated by some method involving encryption should be cited when available. The rules for citing specific types of electronic sources appear in the sections listed below. Westlaw, Lexis are cited as indicated in section 2.

Opinions published in the online version of the New York Law Journal are cited as indicated in section 2. The case name for a decision is also provided in the "Cite Title As" field in the online Official Reports. Case names found in the Table of Cases in the printed Official Reports should not be used when they differ from the electronic version. To cite a companion case whose title is different than the official case name, formulate a case name as described in section 2.

Also see examples of case names in Appendix 6. Retain the abbreviations provided. If the case does not appear in the Supreme Court's listing, formulate a case name using the citation naming conventions found in standard citation manuals and apply the abbreviations listed in Appendix 1.

In either event, use the abbreviations listed in Appendix 1. People v Wilson , 93 NY2d , n [] Cases Containing More Than One Footnote Where a case contains more than one footnote, the citation should indicate the number of the footnote being cited as follows: City of New York v Cont.

LLC , 60 AD3d , , n 3 [1st Dept ] People v Kozlowski , 11 NY3d , and n 10 [] 4 Citation Referencing Multiple Page Quotation In citing a single quotation that runs over two or more pages, give the pages at which it begins and ends, separated by a hyphen, rather than a comma: Matter of Sayeh R.

Flores v Lower E. Edkins v Board of Educ. Do not include optional information in references to previously cited authority. Each opinion is assigned a Miscellaneous 3d citation as well as a unique Slip Opinion citation that is paginated to permit pinpoint page references. They are cited as follows: Keenan v Dayton Beach Park No. Ohralick v Ohio State Bar Assn. Govic v New York City Tr.

Newbold v Arvidson , Idaho , P2d [] 2 Where Official Reports Unavailable Where an out-of-state case is cited only to the National Reporter System because no official citation is available, the name of the jurisdiction should be added in abbreviated form in brackets: Brinker v First Natl. Bank , 37 SW2d [Tex Commn App ] 3 Citing Reports Known by Name of Reporter When citing reports known by name of the reporter, except New York and English reports, the jurisdiction should be added in abbreviated form in brackets after the name of the reporter: Alberte v Anew Health Care Servs.

Appendix 2 D contains a list of jurisdictions that have adopted a public domain citation. Westlaw or Lexis is permissible only when the case is not published in book form. Provide the case name, citation, court, decision date and docket or index number. If the source is Westlaw or Lexis, and access to both is available, cite both services: Regal v General Motors Corp.

Provide the uniform resource locator URL precisely as it appears in the Internet browser; the case name or document title; the precise identifier, such as case citation or number; and the date of the decision, adding if applicable the date that the decision was updated or corrected. Add pinpoint citations, if any, after the precise identifier. The name of the author may be added if desired: Applications of a Child with a Disability [Board of Educ.

Supply case name information where applicable. Matter of Freeport Union Free Sch. Either the full name or the abbreviated name may be used in running text.

For example, if the statute refers to its "subdivisions," "subsections," "paragraphs," "subparagraphs," etc. If the statute does not use any such terminology, use "subdivision," "paragraph," "subparagraph," "clause" in descending order. Some suggested forms of statutory citations in running text are as follows: Section of the Town Law provides. Penal Law article 80 provides. Article 80 of the Penal Law provides. Subdivision 1 of section of the Town Law provides.

Subparagraph iii of CPLR b 2 provides. CPLR b 2 iii provides. Title 1 of article 3 of the RPTL provides. As stated in article 23, title 27 of the Environmental Conservation Law. Citations in Running Text Some suggested forms of citation of parallel hierarchy in running text are as follows: The semicolon is inserted at the point where a following division is of a more inclusive character than the preceding one.

Citations in Running Text Some suggested forms of ascending hierarchy citations in running text are as follows: CPLR a , b 2 and a 1 ii provide. Former section of the Judiciary Law provided. As explained in Richard A. As explained in Brett S. According to Patrick M. Citation may be made to the appropriate session and chapter as well as to the act's popular name or short title, if any. Subsequent references to an unconsolidated law's popular name or short title may appear in an abbreviated form e.

Federal Public Laws or United States Statutes at Large may be cited to refer to an enactment not contained in the United States Code or to indicate the addition, amendment, renumbering or repeal of a law contained in the United States Code. Within parentheses the name of the statutory compilation should be abbreviated, e. In addition, the relevant jurisdiction's designation of statutory divisions should be used.

For example, some states refer to the first division of a section as a subsection or the first division of an article as a paragraph. Furthermore, use any abbreviations provided in an out-of-state compilation's prescribed form of statutory citation. Citation to either the annotated or unannotated compilation is acceptable. Matters occurring before April 1, are governed by the Code of Professional Responsibility and should cite that code and include references to both the Disciplinary Rule and its companion NYCRR provision.

Interior brackets are changed to parentheses as follows: Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure rule 10 5. Some suggested forms are as follows: Where the source contains pagination, a page reference may be included if greater precision is desired. Separate two authors' names with an ampersand. Separate more than two with commas and an ampersand before the final name or place the phrase "et al.

Titles of articles and chapters within those sources are set in italics. To cite a website, provide the name of the website, the uniform resource locator URL precisely as it appears in the Internet browser and the date the website was accessed. To cite specific content, provide the name of the author, if any; a description of the content, such as a heading or document title; the publication date; the precise URL; and, in order of preference, the date that the content was last updated or accessed.

Add a page reference or other pinpoint citation if desired after the description. If the particular document or page referenced cannot be directly accessed using the URL, add the necessary navigation instructions to the citation. Joseph Warburton, Trusts Versus Corporations: Schorr, Limited Liability Companies: Fenn, Note, Supreme Court Justices: Chadbourn rev ] 17 Steven Plitt et al. Otherwise, cite as follows: Risk Assessment Guidelines and Commentary at 4 [Nov.

Include the e-book edition and the type of e-reader used. To provide a pinpoint citation, use a fixed reference point such as a location number. In criminal actions, the prosecuting authority is usually described as "The People of the State of New York" and is referred to as Plaintiff.

In habeas corpus proceedings and other proceedings brought in the name and on behalf of the People of the State of New York, the caption should begin with the words "The People of the State of New York ex rel. In claims against the State, the prosecuting party is referred to as Claimant and the State as Defendant.

Cross-appealing parties are designated Appellant-Respondent and Respondent-Appellant, the first party to appeal being Appellant-Respondent. Defendants, Appellants , only the name of the first named party of that status should appear in the title followed by "et al. In addition, where the person or entity omitted is not a party to the action or proceeding most commonly the children in child neglect, abuse or custody proceedings "and Another" or "and Others" should be used instead of et al.

In the Matter of Kaitlyn S. In addition, if a suit is brought "on Behalf" of an entity or "by" a representative, official or guardian, this should be so designated. Also, where a party is identified solely by a person's governmental office e. Where a proceeding commenced in Supreme Court is transferred to the Appellate Division, the parties are designated Petitioner and Respondent, not Appellant and Respondent.

However, in unemployment insurance and workers' compensation proceedings that are appealed directly to the Appellate Division from the Unemployment Insurance Appeal Board or Workers' Compensation Board, the parties are referred to by their status on appeal, i. In an appellate action or proceeding title, omit captions of adjunct actions or proceedings e. Use a suitable notation, for example And Two Other Proceedings. Bannon, Appellant-Respondent, and Keith J.

The Respondents in the above example are separately listed because the first Respondents are parties to the appeal and consequently are named, whereas the second Respondent is not participating in the appeal and thus is unnamed. Where the middle name or names of an attorney are given, use them. Include the city, village or town of the firm, legal organization or attorney s appearing for each party, when available.

The following examples are illustrative: Levy of counsel , for Smithtown Teachers Association, appellant. Stone , Watertown Dennis D. Linden of counsel , for respondent. Weafer of counsel , for respondent. Richard McDowell , P. Law Offices of John Smith , Albany, for plaintiff. Crow of counsel , for appellant.

Attorney or Firm Representing Multiple Parties. Ilardi and Levi W. Barrett of counsel , for Bowe-Permac, Inc. Do not use "as" before amicus curiae. Bellinger , defendant pro se. Schindler , Rome, for Hong Jang Tsai, defendant.

Ortiz , Albany, for John Gerdes, appellant. Rubin of counsel , for respondent. The proper form is: Kelly of counsel , for plaintiff. Zoni, Special Prosecutor , Valatie, for respondent. Scott , of the Illinois bar, admitted pro hac vice, for appellant. Short-form references also are capitalized: State of New York The word "state" standing alone should be capitalized only when the word it modifies is capitalized, when referring to a state as a party or when referring to a state acting in its governmental capacity.

In addition, the words "county," "city," "town," "village" and the like standing alone should be capitalized only when the word they modify is capitalized, when referring to a political subdivision as a party or when referring to a political subdivision acting in its governmental capacity.

Capitalize "district" when naming a district in full, such as First Assembly District, Second Congressional District, but lowercase "district" when used as a general term, such as "one of the congressional districts. General references to courts or their parts are not capitalized.

Short-form references to a specific judge or justice are also capitalized. General references to "judge" or "justice" are not capitalized, except when referring to a judge or justice of a named court. Many judges have written. Capitalize the titles of acts, ordinances, regulations, etc.: But lowercase the words "act," "statute," "ordinance," "regulation," etc.

Lowercase general references to federal, state and municipal codes, such as housing regulations, steel code, oil code and building code.

Lowercase statute of limitations, statute of frauds and rule against perpetuities. When multiple constitutional clauses are discussed, the word "Clauses" is capitalized: Takings and Due Process Clauses 3 Constitutions Capitalize constitution when referring to the specific constitution of any nation or state, but lowercase it as a general term.

New York State Constitution Federal Constitution Capitalize amendments to the constitution when referred to by number, such as the Fifteenth Amendment. When referred to by name, capitalize if full title is given, such as the Child Labor Amendment; but lowercase "amendment" as a general term—"a constitutional amendment.

English setter King Charles spaniel golden retriever However, the style of the larger numbers controls the style of the smaller ones, when used in the same context e. Ordinarily, spell out numbers that begin a sentence e. Roman numerals may be used alone or with text as a heading to delineate paragraphs or sections of an opinion. Defendant's term of probation was reduced to four years. Defendant was sentenced to a prison term of 15 years. Defendant's sentence was reduced to a prison term of 3 to 6 years.

New York State retirement level] 8 Ages four year old, but four-year-old child 9 Numbered Lists When using numbers to identify items in a list that is interwoven in a sentence, place the numbers within parentheses. If the list is in columnar format, omit the parentheses and add a period after each number. Two principal issues were addressed: Three officers comprised the board: During July of , the parties entered into a contract. Months should be spelled out when part of a textual sentence in footnotes.

The decision of Mr. Chancellor Kent's opinion pointed the way. Bartlett of the Court of Appeals said. Chief Judge L ippman ; S tark , J. First names may be added to avoid ambiguity: M arks , J. In the event of conflicting styles, follow the personal name style used in papers submitted by or on behalf of that individual. All quotations, including blocked quotations, must be enclosed within quotation marks. Quotations of 50 words or more in opinions must be blocked.

For counting purposes, words include articles, symbols and numbers. Quotations in Appellate Division memorandum decisions are not blocked. Multiple paragraph quotations in Appellate Division memorandum decisions should be set out as tabbed paragraphs. Other punctuation, such as question marks and exclamation marks, is placed within the ending quotation mark only if part of the quoted material.

Do not use an ellipsis at the beginning of a quotation. The omission of punctuation or one or more words from the middle of a quotation is indicated by an ellipsis.

The omission of internal quotation marks or case citations from a quotation is indicated by a parenthetical, such as internal quotation marks and citation omitted , in which case ellipses are not necessary.

Otherwise, use only a period. Indicate an omission between quoted sentences as follows if retention of the period is desired: If the end of the preceding sentence is omitted, insert an ellipsis followed by a period last quoted word of preceding sentence.

First word of next sentence. If the beginning of the succeeding sentence is omitted, insert an ellipsis after the period that concludes the preceding sentence last word of preceding sentence. Place the ellipsis before the punctuation if the omitted material precedes the punctuation word. Place the ellipsis after the punctuation if the omitted material follows the punctuation word,. If bracketed language replaces language omitted, do not indicate the omission with an ellipsis.

If the end of a word is omitted or altered and the immediately succeeding language is omitted, use brackets and an ellipsis to indicate those changes. To add emphasis to a quotation, use italics and add a parenthetical: However, when the source document in which a quotation is found uses a different style of emphasis e. When emphasis in the source document is retained in a quotation and the author wishes to add further emphasis, use italics and add a parenthetical, such as: When emphasis in a source document is omitted from a quotation, add a parenthetical: Likewise, a quotation within a quotation within a quotation may be enclosed within double quotation marks ".

The court reviews "whether counsel's performance 'viewed in totality' amounts to 'meaningful representation' " People v Grey , 34 AD3d , [2d Dept ]. Alternatively, a quotation from language already containing quotations may be quoted in the following manner: The court reviews "whether counsel's performance viewed in totality amounts to meaningful representation" People v Grey , 34 AD3d , [2d Dept ] [internal quotation marks omitted].

Use Avoid administrator administratrix a one-person operation a one-man operation artificial man-made Assembly Member; Member of the Assembly Assemblyman battered syndrome or battered person syndrome battered woman syndrome businessperson; executive businessman chair; chairperson chairman colleagues brethren diplomacy statesmanship drafter draftsman executor executrix firefighter fireman presiding juror; foreperson foreman supervisor [employment context] foreman high ranking officials men in high places homemaker housewife journalists gentlemen of the press Member of Congress; Representative Congressman members of the jury gentlemen of the jury nurse male nurse police officer policeman reasonable person reasonable man representative spokesman staff manpower worker workman For example, "A court clerk can give you her advice on that form," can be changed to "A court clerk can give you advice on that form.

He is the one who can help you," can be changed to "You should find a court officer. That is the officer who can help you. Instead of writing, "A juror must make his own assessment of the credibility of each witness," you can write, "Jurors must make their own assessments of the credibility of each witness.

See the word list at Appendix 5. Otherwise, hyphenate a prefix to a root word only where ambiguity might otherwise result e. Legalisms are also discouraged.

For example, consider these substitutes: Instead of Consider Using ab initio from the beginning; from the inception ad infinitum forever; without end a fortiori for an even stronger reason arguendo for the sake of argument; hypothetically; assuming cestui que trust beneficiary circa about dehors out of; beyond; outside ex contractu from a contract; contractual; in contract indices indexes in loco delicti in the place of the offense in praesenti in the present; at the present time in statu quo in the present condition inter alia among others; among other things inter se among themselves; between themselves in toto completely; in all; totally; on the whole make a motion move nisi prius trial court opinion per opinion by or, in the alternative or pro rata proportional; proportionate pro tanto partial; as far as it goes qua in the capacity of; as quantum amount quondam former said the same it; them sans without sub silentio silently; under silence such the; this or that to wit namely viz.

The name of any person younger than 18 years old should not appear in any published opinion. Nor should any opinion contain the surname of any person, such as a parent, who shares a surname with the child. The names of affected persons should not appear in any published opinion where court records are made confidential by law or where the sensitivity or circumstances of the case raise privacy concerns.

This includes juvenile delinquency and PINS proceedings, foster care proceedings, child abuse and neglect proceedings and support proceedings. Special consideration should be given to the possibility that, under the circumstances of a case, the identification of a person in a published decision may raise concerns for that person's privacy or safety, even if that person's role in the case is already a matter of public record. This rule may require redaction of the names of witnesses or other nonparties who are referenced in text.

If reference to protected personal names is necessary, use real or fictitious initials or other formats that shield the person from identification.

For example, George Jones may be replaced by George J. Numerical identifiers such as Social Security numbers; bank, credit and debit card numbers, insurance policy numbers and other financial account numbers; and driver's license numbers should not appear in any published opinion. The exact date of birth of any individual should not appear in any published opinion.

If reference to numerical identifiers is necessary, only the last three or four digits should be used e. If reference to date of birth is necessary, use only the year e. Use terminology that places the person before the disability e. Include the specific page or footnote number that is being cross-referenced.

M urphy et al. The heading may be centered or flush left depending on the author's preference, but placement within an opinion should be consistent. Both flush left and centered headings may be used in a single decision. In WordPerfect, select "Table" from the menu at the top of the page; in Word, select "Insert" from the menu at the top of the page. Assistance is available in WordPerfect by selecting "Help" from the menu at the top of the page and in Word by pressing the F1 key on the keyboard.

Chief Judge L ippman. If not on the list, italicize foreign words and phrases only if they are italicized in Black's Law Dictionary 10th ed Names of newspapers, magazines, books, etc.

Church T homas M oore , M. In the Matter of S. Do not abbreviate terms used as a possessive [Employers' not Empls. Administrat[or, rix] Adm'[r, x] Agricult[ural, ure] Agric. Contract[ing, ual, or] Contr. County Do not abbreviate Court Ct. Distribut[ing, ion, or] Distrib. Electric[al, ity], Electronic Elec. Employ[ee, er, ment] Empl. Engineering Eng'g Enterprise Enter. Execut[or, rix] Ex'[r, x] Federal Fed. Financ[e, ial, ing] Fin. Honorable Do not abbreviate Horticult[ural, ure] Hort.

Industr[y, ies, ial, ials] Indus. Institut[e, ion, ional] Inst. Invest[or, ment, ing] Inv. Limited Liability Company L. Marine, Maritime, Marina Mar. Professional Corporation PC or P.

Techn[ical, ology, ologies] Tech. Tele[gram, graph, phone, vision] Tel. Public Domain Citation A. A public domain citation is assigned by the court or the Reporter of Decisions and is not associated with a particular vendor or a particular medium of publication. The citation formats adopted by these jurisdictions are listed below and the style rule governing these citations is found in section 2.

Supplementary Pamphlet Supp Pamph transcript tr videlicet viz. Current New York Statutes B. Federal Statutes Use abbreviated form within parentheses. Either full or abbreviated form may be used in running text. Variations may be required in certain titles. Matter of Tina Marie H. La Grove , Respondent.

Immediate , Deceased, Appellant, v St. Kornblut v Chevron Oil Co. Matter of Jessica Marie R. In the Matter of Jessica M. Matter of Jessica M. In the Matter of the Custody of Judy G. Matter of Judy G. This is the preferred form for arbitration titles. Matter of Acting Supt. United Liverpool Faculty Assn. This is an acceptable form for arbitration titles. Matter of Wyandanch Union Free Sch.

Matter of Roberts Real Estate, Inc. In the Matter of David K. Wong , Respondent, v Edward J. Votta v Selleck Angelo Chiarella et al. Phase 1, Staten Is. Miller Facilities Corporation et al. Wargold , Also Known as Susan Serlin. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company. Roger Heasley , Appellant; Hewlett Gibson et al. Rupert White , Respondent. Matter of Jones Co. Matter of Frontier Ins. Radiant Gems and Minerals, Inc. Riverside Avenue Corporation , Appellant. Matter of County of Rensselaer Riverside Ave.

Matter of Second Report of Sept. In the Matter of Omnicon Group Inc. Gary Otterbach et al. Matter of Omnicon Group Inc. Matter of Daniel Aaron D.

Matter of Chachkers Shirley W. Matter of Mental Hygiene Legal Serv. Matter of Arnold O. Biscone In the Matter of Michael V. Matter of Stephen G. Matter of Commissioner of Social Servs. Matter of Rochester Gas Corp. State Commission on Judicial Conduct , Respondent.

Matter of Benjamin State Commn. Warren County Attorney , Respondent. Matter of Cleve C. Matter of Benson Park Assoc. Matter of Michael A. Matter of Department of Social Servs. Matter of Kristian CC. Matter of Reliance Ins. Matter of Settlement Funding of N. Matter of Henderson Receivables Ltd. Ghee , Appellant, v County of Monroe et al. Weiss , as President of the Welco Dress Co. Matter of State Tax Commn. Matter of Hooper Holmes, Inc. Matter of Equifax Servs. This is the suggested style when the defendant s and third-party plaintiff s are identical.

Francine Heller et al. Encore of Hicksville, Inc. Heller v Encore of Hicksville, Inc.

Matter of County of Rensselaer Riverside Ave. If a case has not been officially reported, formulate a case name using the citation naming conventions found in standard citation manuals and apply the abbreviations listed in Appendix 1.

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Cite the United States Code if therein.

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