The (intermittency) transition model is a further development based on the -transition model. The transition model solves only one transport equation for the turbulence intermittency and avoids the need for the second equation of the -transition model. Bid Monitor. Display weekly positions available for the next bid.
In order to garner legislative support in the Bundestag , the chancellor can also ask for a motion of confidence Vertrauensfrage , literally "question of trust" , either combined with a legislative proposal or as a standalone vote. Only if such a vote fails may the Federal President dissolve the Bundestag.
Use of the mixed form "Frau Bundeskanzler" was deprecated by the government in because it is regarded as impolite. Since , the official residence of the Chancellor is the Federal Chancellery Bundeskanzleramt in Berlin.
The former seat of the Federal Chancellery, the Palais Schaumburg in the former capital Bonn , now serves as a secondary official seat. The Chancellor's country retreat is Schloss Meseberg in the state of Brandenburg. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from German Bundeskanzler. Human rights Federal Constitutional Court. Joint Committee Gemeinsamer Ausschuss. States Länder Administrative regions Regierungsbezirke. Electoral system Political parties Referendums. Constructive vote of no confidence.
Retrieved 24 March List of Chancellors of Germany. Timeline Historiography Military history. Heads of state and government of Europe. Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on geographical definition. Recognised by at least one United Nations member.
Not recognised by any United Nations members. Retrieved from " https: Chancellors of Germany Lists of political office-holders in Germany. Pages using Timeline Webarchive template wayback links Use dmy dates from September Articles containing German-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Commons category link is on Wikidata Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers. Views Read Edit View history.
Logo of the Chancellor. Madam Chancellor Her Excellency. The Federal President In accordance with a vote in the Bundestag. None The chancellor's term of office ends when a new Bundestag German Parliament convenes for its first meeting,  i. Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany. Elections Electoral system Political parties Referendums. Germany portal Other countries Atlas.
Konrad Adenauer — North Rhine-Westphalia. A local formulation that provides levels in the middle of the boundary layer similar to the freestream turbulence intensity, , is expressed as:. The formula for reads as:. For numerical robustness, was bounded as follows:.
The function accounts for the influence of the pressure gradient on transition, and is defined as:. The transition model has been calibrated against a wide range of generic as well as turbomachinery and external aeronautical test cases. While you should not have to adjust the model coefficients in most situations, the model provides access to the coefficients so that you can fine-tune the model. This should only be done based on detailed experimental data.
You can adjust the following constants in the correlations: The constant defines the minimal value of critical number, whereas the sum of and defines the maximal value of. The controls how fast the decreases as the turbulence intensity increases. The and constants adjust the value of critical number in areas with favorable and adverse pressure gradient, respectively.
The constant becomes active in regions with separation, correcting the value if necessary. Additionally, the size of the separation bubble can be tuned by another constant, , which enters the model through the source terms directly rather than the correlations see Coupling to SST Model. The constants and define the limits of the function; while they typically do not need to be adjusted, it is possible to do so for details, contact your support engineer.
For crossflow transition, a widely used experimental correlation is the C1 correlation proposed by Arnal [ ]. According to that correlation, transition occurs when the following condition is met:. In the previous equations, is the crossflow Reynolds number, the index refers to a coordinate system that is aligned with the freestream velocity where refers to the boundary layer edge , is the crossflow velocity normal to the direction of the freestream velocity.
The value of is the calibration constant of the Arnal C1 criterion corresponding to a critical Reynolds number.
The transition model accounts for the crossflow transition through a separate correlation, which approximates the C1 correlation through a local formulation. The formulation uses only local information and has the following functional form:. The function accounts for the influence of pressure gradient shape factor ; the function accounts for the ratio of the crossflow strength relative to the streamwise strength; the Reynolds number effect is included through.
The correlation can be adjusted by the constant. Although dense suburban traffic between Leipzig and Halle had already existed for decades from , powered coaches and later series ET 41 ran on this route , a special tariff was never introduced on the line.
On 19 March , construction work began in Halle for the new commuter train route between the two cities. The commissioning of the million-euro project was planned for December The construction costs were raised primarily by the German federal government million euros and the states of Saxony-Anhalt 39 million euro and Saxony 34 million euro. In Leipzig, the route leads from the main station directly over the original route used for the decades only by freight trains of the Magdeburg-Leipzig Railway Company to Leipzig-Wahren.
As a result, the travel time of 36 minutes is unchanged, despite five stops being added. Since the 5 December, the RB 56 route has been reactivated in a trial run with passengers. It was not necessary to introduce a special tariff because of the existence of the Mitteldeutschen Verkehrsverbundes since August These were later changed to S 1, S 2 and S 3. The S 2 line known as the "Forest Railway" was shut down in The S 1 line was then in divided into the lines S 1 and S 2 so that the platform ramps in the tunnel do not have to cross unnecessarily often.
In , the operation of the line that runs eastwards from the Leipzig main station was awarded to the Mitteldeutsche Regiobahn thus effectively reducing the size of the S-Bahn network. On the routes concerned, the timetable did not change.
Because of cost cutting, the remaining S 1 line between Leipzig Miltitzer Allee and Leipzig Hauptbahnhof was cancelled on 30 April As a replacement, two bus routes and additional tram services are being offered by the LVB. Trains run about every 30 minutes. MRB 11 and were therefore not designated as S-Bahn routes any more.
On weekend nights only, DB run a few services on the line 11 as S It will cost about million euros as of January and will form the main route that the S-Bahn lines S 1 to S 5 will take through the center of Leipzig. The tunnel crosses through the city for a length of 3. Four stations were built along the tunnel: The tunnel thus has a west and a north exit ramp at this end.
Between the west ramp and station Leipzig-Gohlis , the route again separates to Schkeuditz and Leipzig-Leutzsch at a newly constructed above-ground cross-over. For the southern exit of the tunnel, a fly-over for Richard-Lehmann street was built. The tracks towards Stötteritz pass under the tracks to and from Connewitz in an approximately 70 meter long tunnel. From , the S 2, S 4 and S 5 trains stop here. In addition, Taucha train station will be completely rebuilt. It will also be relatively complex to complete the southeast connection Gaschwitz - Engelsdorf along Leipzig—Hof railway.
This is considered to provide additional access to the old fairgrounds. This station replaced a single-track reversing system on which train can change direction or turned off the track. Stötteritz is the endpoint of the S 3 line from December The LVB built a new tram stop directly under the S-Bahn station and thus provided improved connections.
A reconstruction of the station Leipzig-Paunsdorf in the area of today's freight station is being considered, however it will be built later. On the route south towards Gaschwitz , the station Leipzig-Connewitz was expanded to three tracks and received a new pedestrian bridge and access platform.
None The chancellor's term of office ends when a new Bundestag German Parliament convenes for its first meeting,  i. On 19 March , construction work began in Halle for the new commuter train route between the two cities.