Diagramm der Sonnenkorona.
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State diagrams can be used to graphically represent finite state machines. This was introduced by C. Weaver in their book "The Mathematical Theory of Communication". Another possible representation is the State transition table. There are also variants that combine these two notations. For example, if a state has a number of outputs e. This designator will be written inside the state's circle.
S 1 and S 2 are states and S 1 is an accepting state or a final state. Each edge is labeled with the input. Harel statecharts  are gaining widespread usage since a variant has become part of the Unified Modeling Language UML. Classic state diagrams require the creation of distinct nodes for every valid combination of parameters that define the state. This can lead to a very large number of nodes and transitions between nodes for all but the simplest of systems state and transition explosion.
This complexity reduces the readability of the state diagram. With Harel statecharts it is possible to model multiple cross-functional state diagrams within the statechart. Each of these cross-functional state machines can transition internally without affecting the other state machines in the statechart. The current state of each cross-functional state machine in the statechart defines the state of the system.
The Harel statechart is equivalent to a state diagram but it improves the readability of the resulting diagram. There are other sets of semantics available to represent state diagrams.
For example, there are tools for modeling and designing logic for embedded controllers. Newcomers to the state machine formalism often confuse state diagrams with flowcharts. The figure below shows a comparison of a state diagram with a flowchart.
A state machine panel a performs actions in response to explicit events. In contrast, the flowchart panel b does not need explicit events but rather transitions from node to node in its graph automatically upon completion of activities.
Nodes of flowcharts are edges in the induced graph of states. The reason is that each node in a flowchart represents a program command.
A program command is an action to be executed. So it is not a state, but when applied to the program's state, it results in a transition to another state. In more detail, the source code listing represents a program graph.
Executing the program graph parsing and interpreting results in a state graph. So each program graph induces a state graph. Conversion of the program graph to its associated state graph is called "unfolding" of the program graph. The program graph is a sequence of commands. If no variables exist, then the state consists only of the program counter, which keeps track of where in the program we are during execution what is the next command to be applied. In this case before executing a command the program counter is at some position state before the command is executed.
Executing the command moves the program counter to the next command. Since the program counter is the whole state, it follows that executing the command changed the state. So the command itself corresponds to a transition between the two states. Now consider the full case, when variables exist and are affected by the program commands being executed. Then between different program counter locations, not only does the program counter change, but variables might also change values, due to the commands executed.
Consequently, even if we revisit some program command e. Dense cities became diffuse as the car began to dictate the city fabric, greatly augmenting the space allotted for roads and parking spaces. Such general optimism encouraged planning bureaucracies to employ a tabula rasa in modern cities that called for clearing areas of high urban density , often deemed slums, to make room for large-scale urban gestures.
In , Gordon Cullen began the Townscape movement with his well-known book The Concise Townscape , which suggested architecture emphasize the relationship between urban elements— buildings, trees, nature, water, traffic, advertisements, etc.
In , Rem Koolhaas calls for interconnections amongst built architecture, requiring a more continuous poche in the figure ground, in his recognized book S, M, L, XL. Such density will foster more livable communities with increased diversity of use and population, better pedestrian accommodations, more public spaces, and improved public transportation systems. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Urban Figure Ground Debate.
American Planning Association Planning and urban design standards. John Wiley and Sons. Carmona, Matthew; Tiesdell, Steven Congress for the New Urbanism. Retrieved 11 November Modern Architecture since 3rd ed. In Carol Burns and Andrea Kahn. Design Concepts, Histories, and Strategies. Koolhaas, Rem; Mau, Bruce Design Quarterly , Sprawl, Spring Some Questions for Research" MS. Retrieved 8 January Retrieved 3 Dec Rowe, Colin; Koetter, Fred The Predicament of Texture".
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The Chart of History lists events in separate locations; it illustrates Priestley's belief that the entire world's history was significant, a relatively new development in the 18th century, which had begun with Voltaire and William Robertson.