Syria is ranked last on the Global Peace Index, making it the most violent country in the world due to the war, although life continues normally for most of its citizens as of December Calling code: + · Was die freie Welt nicht sehen soll - Kampfaufnahmen der Rebellen in Syrien.
In the early s, Scud -C missiles with a kilometre mile range were procured from North Korea , and Scud-D, with a range of up to kilometres miles , is allegedly being developed by Syria with the help of North Korea and Iran , according to Zisser.
Syria received significant financial aid from Arab states of the Persian Gulf as a result of its participation in the Persian Gulf War , with a sizable portion of these funds earmarked for military spending.
Ensuring national security, increasing influence among its Arab neighbors, and securing the return of the Golan Heights , have been the primary goals of Syria's foreign policy. At many points in its history, Syria has seen virulent tension with its geographically cultural neighbors, such as Turkey, Israel, Iraq, and Lebanon.
Syria enjoyed an improvement in relations with several of the states in its region in the 21st century, prior to the Arab Spring and the Syrian Civil War. Since the ongoing civil war of , and associated killings and human rights abuses, Syria has been increasingly isolated from the countries in the region, and the wider international community.
Diplomatic relations have been severed with several countries including: Syria's violence against civilians has also seen it suspended from the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation in Syria continues to foster good relations with its traditional allies, Iran and Russia, who are among the few countries which have supported the Syrian government in its conflict with the Syrian opposition.
In order to facilitate this, a faulty election was done in which ethnic Turks who were originally from the Sanjak but lived in Adana and other areas near the border in Turkey came to vote in the elections, shifting the election in favor of secession. Through this, the Hatay Province of Turkey was formed. The move by the French was very controversial in Syria, and only 5 years later Syria became independent.
The western two-thirds of Syria's Golan Heights region are since occupied by Israel and were in effectively annexed by Israel ,   whereas the eastern third is controlled by Syria, with the UNDOF maintaining a buffer zone in between, to implement the ceasefire of the Purple Line.
Israel's Golan annexation law is not recognised in international law. The Syrian occupation of Lebanon began in as a result of the civil war and ended in April in response to domestic and international pressure after the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister, Rafik Hariri.
Another disputed territory is the Shebaa farms , located in the intersection of the Lebanese-Syrian border and the Israeli occupied Golan Heights. Yet after Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon in , Hezbollah claimed that the withdrawal was not complete because Shebaa was on Lebanese — not Syrian — territory. Syria is divided into 14 governorates , which are sub-divided into 61 districts , which are further divided into sub-districts.
Agrarian reform measures were introduced into Syria which consisted of three interrelated programs: Legislation regulation the relationship between agriculture laborers and landowners: The first law passed Law ; passed 4 September in response to concern about peasant mobilization and expanding peasants' rights. It also acknowledged the rights of landlords to form their own syndicates. Telecommunications in Syria are overseen by the Ministry of Communications and Technology.
As of [update] , the Syrian economy relies upon inherently unreliable revenue sources such as dwindling customs and income taxes which are heavily bolstered by lines of credit from Iran.
Oil reserves are expected to decrease in the coming years and Syria has already become a net oil importer. The economy is highly regulated by the government, which has increased subsidies and tightened trade controls to assuage protesters and protect foreign currency reserves. Syria's share in global exports has eroded gradually since The bulk of Syrian imports are raw materials essential for industry, vehicles, agricultural equipment, and heavy machinery. Earnings from oil exports as well as remittances from Syrian workers are the government's most important sources of foreign exchange.
Political instability poses a significant threat to future economic development. Syria's economy also remains hobbled by state bureaucracy, falling oil production, rising budget deficits, and inflation. Prior to the civil war in , the government hoped to attract new investment in the tourism, natural gas, and service sectors to diversify its economy and reduce its dependence on oil and agriculture.
The government began to institute economic reforms aimed at liberalizing most markets, but those reforms were slow and ad hoc, and have been completely reversed since the outbreak of conflict in Syria's petroleum industry has been subject to sharp decline. Historically, the country produced heavy-grade oil from fields located in the northeast since the late s. In the early s, light-grade, low-sulphur oil was discovered near Deir ez-Zor in eastern Syria.
Syria has four international airports Damascus, Aleppo, Lattakia and Kamishly , which serve as hubs for Syrian Air and are also served by a variety of foreign carriers. The majority of Syrian cargo is carried by Syrian Railways the Syrian railway company , which links up with Turkish State Railways the Turkish counterpart.
For a relatively underdeveloped country, Syria's railway infrastructure is well maintained with many express services and modern trains. The road network in Syria is 69, kilometres 43, miles long, including 1, kilometres miles of expressways. The country also has kilometres miles of navigable but not economically significant waterways.
Syria is a semiarid country with scarce water resources. The largest water consuming sector in Syria is agriculture.
In the population of Syria was Most people live in the Euphrates River valley and along the coastal plain, a fertile strip between the coastal mountains and the desert.
Overall population density in Syria is about 99 per square kilometre per square mile. According to the World Refugee Survey , published by the U. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Syria hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 1,, The vast majority of this population was from Iraq 1,, , but sizeable populations from Palestine , and Somalia 5, also lived in the country.
In what the UN has described as "the biggest humanitarian emergency of our era",  about 9. Syrians are an overall indigenous Levantine people, closely related to their immediate neighbours, such as Lebanese , Palestinians , Jordanians and Jews.
The indigenous Assyrians and Western Aramaic -speakers number around , people,  with the Western Aramaic-speakers living mainly in the villages of Ma'loula , Jubb'adin and Bakh'a , while the Assyrians mainly reside in the north and northeast Homs, Aleppo, Qamishli, Hasakah.
Many particularly the Assyrian group still retain several Neo-Aramaic dialects as spoken and written languages. The second largest ethnic group in Syria are the Kurds. Most Kurds reside in the northeastern corner of Syria and most speak the Kurmanji variant of the Kurdish language.
There are no reliable estimates of their total population, with estimates ranging from several hundred thousand to 3. Syria holds the 7th largest Armenian population in the world. They are mainly gathered in Aleppo, Qamishli , Damascus and Kesab. There are also smaller ethnic minority groups, such as the Albanians , Bosnians , Georgians , Greeks , Persians , Pashtuns and Russians. Syria was once home to a substantial population of Jews , with large communities in Damascus, Aleppo, and Qamishii.
Due to a combination of persecution in Syria and opportunities elsewhere, the Jews began to emigrate in the second half of the 19th century to Great Britain, the United States, and Israel.
The process was completed with the establishment of the State of Israel in Today only a few Jews remain in Syria. The largest concentration of the Syrian diaspora outside the Arab world is in Brazil , which has millions of people of Arab and other Near Eastern ancestries. Religion in Syria est.
President Bashar al-Assad's family is Alawite and Alawites dominate the government of Syria and hold key military positions. Chalcedonian Antiochian Orthodox make up Many Christian monasteries also exist. Many Christian Syrians belong to a high socio-economic class. Arabic is the official language of the country. Several modern Arabic dialects are used in everyday life, most notably Levantine in the west and Mesopotamian in the northeast.
According to The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics , in addition to Arabic, the following languages are spoken in the country, in order of the number of speakers: Kurdish ,  Turkish ,  Neo-Aramaic four dialects ,  Circassian ,  Chechen ,  Armenian ,  and finally Greek.
Aramaic was the lingua franca of the region before the advent of Arabic , and is still spoken among Assyrians , and Classical Syriac is still used as the liturgical language of various Syriac Christian denominations.
Syria is a traditional society with a long cultural history. Syrians' taste for the traditional arts is expressed in dances such as the al-Samah, the Dabkeh in all their variations, and the sword dance. Marriage ceremonies and the births of children are occasions for the lively demonstration of folk customs. The literature of Syria has contributed to Arabic literature and has a proud tradition of oral and written poetry. Syrian writers, many of whom migrated to Egypt, played a crucial role in the nahda or Arab literary and cultural revival of the 19th century.
Ba'ath Party rule, since the coup , has brought about renewed censorship. In this context, the genre of the historical novel, spearheaded by Nabil Sulayman , Fawwaz Haddad , Khyri al-Dhahabi and Nihad Siris , is sometimes used as a means of expressing dissent, critiquing the present through a depiction of the past.
Syrian folk narrative , as a subgenre of historical fiction, is imbued with magical realism , and is also used as a means of veiled criticism of the present. Contemporary Syrian literature also encompasses science fiction and futuristic utopiae Nuhad Sharif , Talib Umran , which may also serve as media of dissent. The Syrian music scene , in particular that of Damascus, has long been among the Arab world's most important, especially in the field of classical Arab music.
The city of Aleppo is known for its muwashshah , a form of Andalous sung poetry popularized by Sabri Moudallal , as well as for popular stars like Sabah Fakhri. Television was introduced to Syria and Egypt in , when both were part of the United Arab Republic. It broadcast in black and white until Syrian soap operas have considerable market penetration throughout the eastern Arab world. Nearly all of Syria's media outlets are state-owned, and the Ba'ath Party controls nearly all newspapers.
The most popular sports in Syria are football , basketball, swimming, and tennis. Damascus was home to the fifth and seventh Pan Arab Games. Many popular football teams are based in Damascus, Aleppo, Homs, Latakia, etc. The Abbasiyyin Stadium in Damascus is home to the Syrian national football team. The team enjoyed some success, having qualified for four Asian Cup competitions. The team had its first international on 20 November , losing to Turkey 7—0.
Syrian cuisine is rich and varied in its ingredients, linked to the regions of Syria where a specific dish has originated.
Some Syrian dishes also evolved from Turkish and French cooking: Baklava is made of filo pastry filled with chopped nuts and soaked in honey. Syrians often serve selections of appetizers, known as meze , before the main course.
The Arabic flatbread khubz is always eaten together with meze. Drinks in Syria vary, depending on the time of day and the occasion. Arabic coffee , also known as Turkish coffee , is the most well-known hot drink, usually prepared in the morning at breakfast or in the evening. It is usually served for guests or after food.
Arak , an alcoholic drink, is a well-known beverage, served mostly on special occasions. Other Syrian beverages include ayran , jallab , white coffee , and a locally manufactured beer called Al Shark. Education is free and compulsory from ages 6 to Schooling consists of 6 years of primary education followed by a 3-year general or vocational training period and a 3-year academic or vocational program. The second 3-year period of academic training is required for university admission.
Total enrollment at post-secondary schools is over , The literacy rate of Syrians aged 15 and older is Since , all schools, colleges, and universities have been under close government supervision by the Ba'ath Party.
There are 6 state universities in Syria  and 15 private universities. There are also many higher institutes in Syria, like the Higher Institute of Business Administration , which offer undergraduate and graduate programs in business. According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities , the top-ranking universities in the country are Damascus University th worldwide , the University of Aleppo th and Tishreen University th.
In , spending on healthcare accounted for 3. In , there were From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the modern state of Syria.
For other uses, see Syria disambiguation. Country in Western Asia. Farouk al-Sharaa Najah al-Attar. Arameans , Syro-Hittite states , and Phoenicia. List of battles of Muhammad. Controlled by Syrian Arab Republic.
Controlled by the Syrian opposition and Ahrar al-Sham. Controlled by Tahrir al-Sham al-Nusra. Human rights in Syria. Foreign relations of Syria. Countries that support the Syrian government. Countries that support the Syrian rebels. Turkish occupation of northern Syria and Israeli-occupied territories. Governorates of Syria and Districts of Syria. Water supply and sanitation in Syria.
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Since then there have been two […]. Gvosdev — July 17, — russiamatters. Few know that better than President Trump, for whom flamboyant appearance is more important than substance. What could generate broader […]. But any agreement is likely to be carefully phrased […]. Paul Goble — Window on Eurasia — Staunton, July 4, Previous American presidents in their dealings with Moscow have typically moved from progress in one area to progress in others, Andrey Kortunov says; but Donald Trump is different: Second … Israel has a right to defend its borders, whether in the north or in the south Hezbollah and Hamas territories respectively.
This may have been the goal all along for … Putin, who has initiated and managed such conflicts elsewhere, including in Georgia and Ukraine.
While talking to journalists on Thursday, Ryabkov was asked whether there were any concerns about Russian-U. The question is what Trump intends to do about the situation, writes Shalom Lipner. This piece originally appeared in The National Interest.
But … they say that the exchange of explosive declarations last week turned out to be mostly theater. Kremlin-connected analysts say that US and Russian military […].
For the first time in living memory, there is a realistic prospect of a superpower conflict. We encounter a baffling array of players:
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Saudi Arabia weakened as Iran plans to consolidate gains. Syria, as he realised over the course of many visits, was for him "the most exciting and interesting country in the Arab world, and the richest in human kindness.